Luxembourg (GPS: 49 45 N, 6 10 E) is located in Western Europe, between France and Germany. The country’s area measurements are total: 2,586 sq km; land: 2,586 sq km, water: 0 sq km. This sovereign state is slightly smaller than Rhode Island. The total irrigated land is 0 sq km (2012).
One of the essential features of Luxembourg: Landlocked (enclosed or nearly enclosed by land). The only grand duchy in the world.
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Luxembourg’s GPS coordinates are 49 36 N 6 07 E. Luxembourg’s local time is 6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC+1, note; Daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October.
Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger autonomy measure. In 1867, Luxembourg attained full independence under the condition that it promises perpetual neutrality. Overrun by Germany in both world wars ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the EEC (later the EU), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency zone.
Luxembourg’s names conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, conventional short form: Luxembourg, local long form: Grand Duchee de Luxembourg, local short form: Luxembourg, etymology: from the Celtic “lucilem” (little) and the German “burg” (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the “little castle.” The name derives from the Celtic “lucilem” (little) and the German “burg” (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the “little castle”; The name is actually ironic since for centuries the Fortress of Luxembourg was one of Europe’s most formidable fortifications; The name passed to the surrounding city and then to the country itself.
Luxembourg’s terrain is typically gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast. The country’s mean elevation: 325 m, elevation extremes; lowest point: Moselle River 133 m, highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m.
The general climate in the country; modified continental with mild winters, cool summers.
The total number of border countries is 3, Belgium 130 km, France 69 km, Germany 128 km are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. Luxembourg’s coastline is 0 km (landlocked country), while its marital claims are: none. Waterways: 37 km (on Moselle River) (2010). Land use: agricultural land: 50.7%; arable land 24%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 26.1%; forest: 33.5%; other: 15.8% (2011 estimate).
The population in Luxembourg 605,764 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 90.2% of total population (2015), central metropolitan area’s population: LUXEMBOURG (capital) 107,000 (2014), while Luxembourg has most people live in the south, on or near the border with France. Their spoken languages are Luxembourgish (official language administrative and judicial language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 88.8%, French (official language administrative, judicial, and legislative language) 4.2%, Portuguese 2.3%, German (official language administrative and judicial language) 1.1%, other 3.5% (2011 estimate). The main religions in Luxembourg are Roman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13% (2000). The nation uses a civil law system. It is a(n) constitutional monarchy, National holiday(s) National Day (birthday of Grand Duke Henri) 23 June.
Economic overview for the country: This small, stable, high-income economy has historically featured substantial growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. Luxembourg, the only Grand Duchy globally, is a landlocked country in northwestern Europe surrounded by Belgium, France, and Germany. Despite its small landmass and small population, Luxembourg is the fifth-wealthiest country globally when measured on a gross domestic product (PPP) per capita basis. Luxembourg has one of the highest current account surpluses as a share of GDP in the eurozone. It maintains a healthy budgetary position, with a 2017 excess of 0.5% of GDP and the region’s lowest public debt level. Since 2002, Luxembourg’s government has proactively implemented policies and programs to support economic diversification and attract foreign direct investment.
The government focused on key innovative industries that showed promise for supporting economic growth: logistics, information and communications technology (ICT); Health technologies, including biotechnology and biomedical research; clean energy technologies, and more recently, space technology and financial services technologies. The economy has evolved and flourished, posting robust GDP growth of 3.4% in 2017, far outpacing the European average of 1.8%. Luxembourg remains a financial powerhouse. The financial sector accounts for more than 35% of GDP – because of the exponential growth of the investment fund sector through the launch and development of cross-border funds (UCITS) in the 1990s. Luxembourg is the world’s second-largest investment fund asset domicile, after the US, with $4 trillion of assets in custody in financial institutions.
Luxembourg has lost some of its advantages as a favorable tax location because of the OECD and EU pressure and the “LuxLeaks” scandal, which revealed advantageous tax treatments offered to foreign corporations. In 2015, the government’s compliance with EU requirements to implement automatic exchange of tax information on savings accounts – thus ending banking secrecy – has constricted banking activity. Likewise, changes to the way EU members collect taxes from e-commerce have cut Luxembourg’s sales tax revenues, requiring the government to raise additional levies and reduce some direct social benefits as part of the tax reform package 2017. The tax reform package also included reductions in the corporate tax rate and increased deductions for families; both intended to increase purchasing power and increase competitiveness.
Natural resources of Luxembourg: iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land.
Main export partners for Luxembourg, Europe are Germany 22.1%, Belgium 16.7%, France 16.6%, UK 4.7%, Italy 4.6%, Netherlands 4% (2015) for machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass, while the main import partners for the country are: Belgium 27.6%, Germany 22.9%, China 11.7%, France 9.5%, US 8.4%, Netherlands 4.2%, Mexico 4.1% (2015) for commercial aircraft, minerals, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs, luxury consumer goods.
When you visit this country in Europe, consider the natural hazards in Luxembourg: N/A, while infectious diseases are N/A. Also, note that Luxembourg faces the following environmental issues: Air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland, and unsustainable consumption (transport, energy, recreation, space) threaten biodiversity and landscapes.
You may also be interested in Luxembourg’s surrounding countries around its total 327 km border, like Belgium, France, Germany.