Mongolia (GPS: 46 00 N, 105 00 E) is located in Northern Asia, between China and Russia. The country’s area measurements are total: 1,564,116 sq km; land: 1,553,556 sq km, water: 10,560 sq km. This sovereign state is slightly smaller than Alaska, more than twice the size of Texas. The total irrigated land is 840 sq km (2012).
One of the essential features of Mongolia: Landlocked – enclosed or nearly enclosed by land. Strategic location between China and Russia.
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Ulaanbaatar’s GPS coordinates are 47 55 N 106 55 E. Ulaanbaatar’s local time is 13 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC+8, note; Daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September. Note: Mongolia has two time zones – Ulaanbaatar Time (8 hours in advance of UTC).
The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN, they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest image. After his death, the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states. Still, these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and came under Chinese rule in the late 17th century. Mongolia declared its independence from the Manchu-led Qing Empire in 1911 and achieved limited autonomy until 1919 when it again came under Chinese control. The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 ended Chinese dominance, and a communist regime, the Mongolian People’s Republic, took power in 1924.
The modern country of Mongolia represents only part of the Mongol’ historical homeland; Today, more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China than in Mongolia. Since the country’s peaceful democratic revolution in 1990, the ex-communist Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP) – which took the name Mongolian People’s Party (MPP) in 2010 – have competed for political power with the Democratic Party (DP) and several other smaller parties, including a new party formed by former President ENKHBAYAR, which confusingly adopted for itself the MPRP name. In the country’s most recent parliamentary elections in June 2016, Mongolians handed the MPP overwhelming control of Parliament, mainly pushing out the DP, which had overseen a sharp decline in Mongolia’s economy during its control of Parliament the preceding years. Mongolians elected a DP member, Khaltmaa BATTULGA, as president in 2017.
Mongolia’s names conventional long form: none, traditional short form: Mongolia, local long form: none, local short state: Mongol Uls, former: Outer Mongolia, etymology: the name means “Land of the Mongols” in Latin; the Mongolian name Mongol Uls translates as “Mongol State.” The name means “Land of the Mongols” in Latin; The Mongolian name Mongol Uls translates as “Mongol State.”
Mongolia’s terrain is typically vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest, Gobi Desert in south-central. The country’s mean elevation: 1,528 m, elevation extremes; lowest point: Hoh Nuur 560 m, highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil 4,374 m.
The general climate in the country; desert: continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges).
The total number of border countries is 2, China 4,630 km, Russia 3,452 km are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. Mongolia’s coastline is 0 km (landlocked country), while its marital claims are: none. Waterways: 580 km (the only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol) (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers ice-free from May to September). Land use: agricultural land: 73%; arable land 0.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 72.6%; forest: 7%; other: 20% (2011 estimate).
The population in Mongolia 3,103,428 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 72% of total population (2015), major urban area’s population: ULAANBAATAR (capital) 1.377 million (2015), while Mongolia has N/A. Their spoken languages are Khalkha Mongol 90% (official language), Turkic, Russian (1999). Main religions in Mongolia are Buddhist 53%, Muslim 3%, Christian 2.2%, Shamanist 2.9%, other 0.4%, none 38.6% (2010 estimate). The nation uses a civil law system influenced by Soviet and Romano-Germanic legal systems; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts. It is a(n) semi-presidential republic, National holiday(s) Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921).
Economic overview for the country: Foreign direct investment in Mongolia’s extractive industries based on extensive deposits of copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten – has transformed Mongolia’s landlocked economy from its traditional dependence on herding and agriculture. Exports now account for more than 40% of GDP. Mongolia depends on China for more than 60% of its external trade – China receives some 90% of Mongolia’s exports and supplies Mongolia with more than one-third of its imports. Mongolia also relies on Russia for 90% of its energy supplies, leaving it vulnerable to price increases.
Remittances from Mongolians working abroad, particularly in South Korea, are significant. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession, political inaction, natural disasters, and strong economic growth because of market reforms and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. The country opened a fledgling stock exchange in 1991. Mongolia joined the WTO in 1997 and sought to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes. Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-2008 mainly because of high copper prices globally and new gold production.
By late 2008, Mongolia was hit by the global financial crisis, and Mongolia’s real economy contracted 1.3% in 2009. In early 2009, the IMF reached a $236 million Stand-by Arrangement with Mongolia, and it emerged from the crisis with a more robust banking sector and better fiscal management. In October 2009, Mongolia passed long-awaited legislation on an investment agreement to develop the Oyu Tolgoi (OT) mine, among the world’s largest untapped copper-gold deposits. However, a dispute with foreign investors developing OT called into question Mongolia’s attractiveness as a destination for foreign investment. This caused a severe drop in FDI, and a slowing economy, leading to the dismissal of Prime Minister Norovyn ALTANKHUYAG in November 2014.
The economy had grown more than 10% per year between 2011 and 2013 – mainly on the strength of commodity exports and high government spending – before slowing to 7.8% in 2014 and falling to the 2% level in 2015. Growth rebounded from a brief 1.6% contraction in the third quarter of 2016 to 5.8% during the first three quarters of 2017, mainly due to rising commodity prices. The May 2015 agreement with Rio Tinto to restart the OT mine and the subsequent $4.4 billion finance package signing in December 2015 stemmed from investor confidence loss. The current government has made restoring investor trust and reviving the economy its top priority but has failed to invigorate the economy in the face of the massive drop-off in foreign direct investment, mounting external debt sizeable budget deficit. Mongolia secured a $5.5 billion financial assistance package from the IMF and a host of international creditors in May 2017, which is expected to improve Mongolia’s long-term fiscal and economic stability as long as Ulaanbaatar can advance the agreement’s difficult contingent reforms, such as consolidating the government’s off-balance-sheet liabilities and rehabilitating the Mongolian banking sector.
Main export partners for Mongolia, Asia are China 84%, Switzerland 9% (2015) for copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals, coal, crude oil, while the main import partners for the country are: China 39.9%, Russia 28.4%, Japan 6.4%, South Korea 6.2% (2015) for machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, cigarettes and tobacco, appliances, soap, and detergent.
When you visit this country in Asia, consider the natural hazards in Mongolia: Dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, ” zud,” which is harsh winter conditions, while infectious diseases are N/A. Also, note that Mongolia faces the following environmental issues: Limited natural fresh water resources in some areas, The burning of soft coal in power plants, and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws leads to air pollution in Ulaanbaatar, Deforestation and overgrazing increase soil erosion from wind and rain, water pollution, Desertification, and mining activities hurt the environment.
You may also be interested in the countries next to Mongolia around its total: 8,082 km border, like China, Russia.