Uzbekistan (GPS: 41 00 N, 64 00 E) located in Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan. The country’s area measurements are total: 447,400 sq km; land: 425,400 sq km, water: 22,000 sq km. This sovereign state is about four times the size of Virginia, slightly larger than California. The total irrigated land is 42,150 sq km (2012).
One of Uzbekistan’s essential features: Along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world.
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Tashkent’s GPS coordinates are 41 19 N 69 15 E. Tashkent’s local time is 10 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC+5.
Uzbekistan is the geographic and population center of Central Asia. The country has a diverse economy and a relatively young population. Russia conquered and united the disparate territories of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution eventually suppressed, and a socialist republic was established in 1924.
During the Soviet era, intensive production of “white gold” (cotton) and grain led to the overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, leaving the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half-dry. Independent since the USSR’s dissolution in 1991, the country has diversified agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base. However, cotton remains a significant part of its economy. Uzbekistan’s first president, Islam KARIMOV, led Uzbekistan for 25 years until his death in September 2016. His successor, former Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV, has improved relations with Uzbekistan’s neighbors and introduced wide-ranging economic, judicial, and social reforms.
Uzbekistan’s names conventional long form: the Republic of Uzbekistan, traditional short form: Uzbekistan, local long form: O’zbekiston Respublikasi, local transient state: O’zbekiston, former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, etymology: a combination of the Turkic words “uz” (self) and “bek” (master) with the Persian suffix “-stan” (country) to give the meaning “Land of the free.” A combination of the Turkic words “uz” (self) and “bek” (master) with the Persian suffix “-stan” (country) to give the meaning “Land of the Free.”
Uzbekistan’s terrain is typically mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in the west. The country’s mean elevation: N/A, elevation extremes; lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m, highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m.
The country’s general climate is Mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters: semiarid grassland in the east.
The total number of border countries is 5, Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2,330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,314 km, Tajikistan 1,312 km, Turkmenistan 1,793 km are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. Uzbekistan’s coastline is 0 km (doubly landlocked); note – Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline, while its marital claims are: none (doubly landlocked). Waterways: 1,100 km (2012). Land use: agricultural land: 62.6%; arable land 10.1%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 51.7%; forest: 7.7%; other: 29.7% (2011 estimate).
The population in Uzbekistan 30,023,709 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 36.4% of total population (2015), central metropolitan area’s population: TASHKENT (capital) 2.251 million (2015), while Uzbekistan has most of the community is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated. Their spoken languages are Uzbek (official language) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%. Note: in the Karakalpakstan Republic, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official language status. Main religions in Uzbekistan are Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%. The nation uses civil law system. It is a(n) presidential republic, highly authoritarian, National holiday(s) Independence Day, 1 September (1991).
Economic overview for the country: Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in which 51% of the population lives in urban settlements; The agriculture-rich Fergana Valley, in which Uzbekistan’s eastern borders are situated, has been counted among the most densely populated parts of Central Asia. Since its independence in September 1991, the government has mostly maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production, prices, and foreign currency access. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbek agriculture remains primarily centered on cotton; Uzbekistan is the world’s fifth-largest cotton exporter and seventh-largest producer.
Uzbekistan’s growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments, and the export of natural gas, gold, and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings. Recently, lower global commodity prices and economic slowdowns in neighboring Russia and China have hurt Uzbekistan’s trade and investment and worsened its foreign currency shortage. Aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government is taking incremental steps to reform the business sector and address impediments to foreign investment. Since the death of first President Islam KARIMOV and the election of President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV, emphasis on such initiatives and government efforts to improve the private sector has increased. In the past, Uzbek authorities accused the US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek laws and have frozen and seized their assets. As a part of its economic reform efforts, the Uzbek Government is looking to expand opportunities for small and medium enterprises and prioritizes increasing foreign direct investment.
In September 2017, the government devalued the official currency rate by almost 50%. It announced the loosening of currency restrictions to eliminate the black currency market, increase access to hard currency, and boost investment.
Main export partners for Uzbekistan, Asia are Switzerland 25.8%, China 17.6%, Kazakhstan 14.2%, Turkey 9.9%, Russia 8.4%, Bangladesh 6.9% (2015) for energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles, while the main import partners for the country are: China 20.8%, Russia 20.8%, South Korea 12%, Kazakhstan 10.8%, Turkey 4.6%, Germany 4.4% (2015) for machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals.
When you visit this country in Asia, consider the natural hazards in Uzbekistan: N/A, while infectious diseases are N/A. Also, note that Uzbekistan faces the following environmental issues: Shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts. These substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification. Respiratory health problems, water pollution from industrial wastes, and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides cause many human health disorders, Increasing soil salination, Soil contamination from buried nuclear processing, and agricultural chemicals, including DDT.