Chad (GPS: 15 00 N, 19 00 E) located in Central Africa, south of Libya. The country’s area measurements are total: 1.284 million sq km; land: 1,259,200 sq km, water: 24,800 sq km. This sovereign state is slightly more than three times the size of California. The total irrigated land is 300 sq km (2012).
One of the essential features of Chad: Chad is the largest of Africa’s 16 landlocked countries. Not long ago – geologically speaking – what is today the Sahara was green savannah teeming with wildlife. During the African Humid Period, roughly 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, a vibrant animal community, including elephants, giraffes, hippos, and antelope, lived there. The last remnant of the “Green Sahara” exists in the Lakes of Ounianga (oo-nee-ahn-ga) in northern Chad, a series of 18 interconnected freshwater, saline, and hypersaline lakes now protected as a World Heritage site.
Lake Chad, the most significant water body in the Sahel, is a remnant of a former inland sea, paleolake Mega-Chad. At its greatest extent, sometime before 5000 B.C., Lake Mega-Chad was the largest of four Saharan paleolakes that existed during the African Humid Period. It covered an area of about 400,000 sq km (150,000 sq mi), roughly the size of today’s Caspian Sea.