New Zealand (GPS: 41 00 S, 174 00 E) located in Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia. The country’s area measurements are total: 268,838 sq km; land: 264,537 sq km, water: 4,301 sq km. This sovereign state is almost twice the size of North Carolina, about the size of Colorado. The total irrigated land is 7,210 sq km (2012).
One of the essential features of New Zealand: Consists of two main islands and many smaller islands. South Island, the more massive main island, is the 12th largest island globally and is divided along its length by the Southern Alps. North Island is the 14th largest island globally and is not as mountainous, but volcanism is marked. New Zealand lies along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean. Up to 90% of the world’s earthquakes and some 75% of the world’s volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire. Almost 90% of the population lives in cities and over three-quarters on North Island. Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world.
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Wellington’s GPS coordinates are 41 18 S 174 47 E. Wellington’s local time is 17 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC+12, note; Daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April. Note: New Zealand has two time zones – New Zealand standard time (12 hours in advance of UTC).
The Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand sometime between A.D. 1250 and 1300. In 1840, their chieftains entered into a compact with Great Britain, the Treaty of Waitangi, in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. That same year, the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both world wars. New Zealand’s full participation in several defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years, the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances.
New Zealand’s names conventional long form: none, conventional short form: New Zealand abbreviation: NZ, etymology: Dutch explorer Abel TASMAN was the first European to reach New Zealand in 1642; he named it Staten Landt, but Dutch cartographers renamed it Nova Zeelandia in 1645 after the Dutch province of Zeeland; British explorer Captain James COOK subsequently anglicized the name to New Zealand when he mapped the islands in 1769. Dutch explorer Abel TASMAN was the first European to reach New Zealand in 1642; He named it Staten Landt, but Dutch cartographers renamed it Nova Zeelandia in 1645 after the Dutch province of Zeeland; British explorer Captain James COOK subsequently anglicized the name to New Zealand when he mapped the islands in 1769.
New Zealand’s terrain is typically predominately mountainous with extensive coastal plains. The country’s mean elevation: 388 m, elevation extremes; lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m, highest point: Aoraki-Mount Cook 3,754 m.
The general climate in the country; temperate with sharp regional contrasts.
The total number of border countries is 0; none are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. New Zealand’s coastline is 15,134 km. Its marital claims are territorial sea: 12 nautical miles, contiguous zone: 24 nautical miles, exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles, continental shelf: 200 nautical miles or the edge of the continental margin. Waterways: N/A. Land use: agricultural land: 43.2%; arable land 1.8%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 41.1%; forest: 31.4%; other: 25.4% (2011 estimate).
The population in New Zealand 4,545,627 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 86.3% of total population (2015), central metropolitan area’s population: Auckland 1.344 million; WELLINGTON (capital) 383,000 (2015), while New Zealand has N/A. Their spoken languages are: English (de facto official language) 89.8%, Maori (de jure official language) 3.5%, Samoan 2%, Hindi 1.6%, French 1.2%, Northern Chinese 1.2%, Yue 1%, other or not stated 20.5%, New Zealand Sign Language (de jure official language). Note shares sum to 120.8% due to multiple responses on the census (2013 estimate).
Main religions in New Zealand are Christian 44.3% (Catholic 11.6%, Anglican 10.8%, Presbyterian and Congregational 7.8%, Methodist, 2.4%, Pentecostal 1.8%, other 9.9%), Hindu 2.1%, Buddhist 1.4%, Maori Christian 1.3%, Islam 1.1%, other religion 1.4% (includes Judaism, Spiritualism, and New Age religions, Baha’i, Asian faiths other than Buddhism), no religion 38.5%, not stated or unidentified 8.2%, objected to answering 4.1% note: based on the 2013 census of the usually resident population; percentages add up to more than 100% because people were able to identify more than one religion (2013 estimate). The nation uses the common law system, with special legislation and land courts for the Maori.
It is a parliamentary democracy (New Zealand Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm, National holiday(s) Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840); ANZAC Day (commemorated as the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April (1915).
Economic overview for the country: Over the past 40 years, the government has transformed New Zealand from an agrarian economy, dependent on concessionary British market access, to a more industrialized, free-market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes but left behind some at the bottom of the ladder and broadened and deepened the industrial sector’s technological capabilities. Per capita income rose for ten consecutive years until 2007 in purchasing power parity terms but fell in 2008-2009. Debt-driven consumer spending drove robust growth in the first half of the decade, fueling a large balance of payments deficit that posed a challenge for policymakers.
Inflationary pressures caused the central bank to steadily raise its key rate from January 2004 until it was among the highest in the OECD in 2007 and 2008. The higher rate attracted international capital inflows, strengthening the currency and housing market while aggravating the current account deficit. Rising house prices, especially in Auckland, have become a political issue in recent years, as well as a policy challenge in 2016 and 2017, as the ability to afford housing has declined for many. Expanding New Zealand’s network of free trade agreements remains a top foreign policy priority. New Zealand was an early promoter of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and was the second country to ratify May 2017. Following the United States’ withdrawal from the TPP in January 2017, on 10 November 2017, the remaining 11 countries agreed on the core elements of a modified agreement, which they renamed the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). In November 2016, New Zealand opened negotiations to upgrade its FTA with China; China is one of New Zealand’s most important trading partners.
Natural resources of New Zealand: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone.
Main export partners for New Zealand, Oceania are China 17.5%, Australia 16.9%, US 11.8%, Japan 6% (2015) for dairy products, meat and edible offal, logs and wood articles, fruit, crude oil, wine, while the main import partners for the country are: China 19.4%, Australia 11.8%, US 11.7%, Japan 6.6%, Germany 4.7%, Thailand 4.2% (2015) for petroleum and products, mechanical machinery, vehicles and parts, electrical machinery, textiles.
When you visit this country in Oceania, consider the natural hazards in New Zealand: Earthquakes are common, though usually not severe, volcanic activity. Volcanism: significant volcanism on North Island, Ruapehu (elevation 2,797 m), which last erupted in 2007, has a history of large eruptions in the past century. Taranaki has the potential to produce dangerous avalanches and lahars. Other historically active volcanoes include Okataina, Raoul Island, Tongariro, and White Island, while infectious diseases are N/A. Also, note that New Zealand faces the following environmental issues: Water quality and availability, Rapid urbanization, Deforestation, Soil erosion and degradation, Native flora, and fauna hard-hit by invasive species, Negative effects of climate change.
You may also be interested in the countries next to New Zealand around its 0 km border – No border countries.