Andorra (GPS: 42 30 N, 1 30 E) is located in Southwestern Europe, Pyrenees mountains, on the border between France and Spain. The country’s area measurements are total: 468 sq km; land: 468 sq km, water: 0 sq km. This sovereign state is 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC. The total irrigated land is 0 sq km (2012).
One of the essential features of Andorra: Landlocked – enclosed or nearly enclosed by land. Straddles several vital crossroads in the Pyrenees.
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Andorra la Vella’s GPS coordinates are 42 30 N 1 31 E. Andorra la Vella’s local time is 6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC+1, note; Daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October.
The landlocked Principality of Andorra is one of the smallest states in Europe, nestled high in the Pyrenees between the French and Spanish borders. For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Bishop of Urgell). In 1993, this feudal system was modified to introduce a modern constitution; The co-princes remained as titular heads of state, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy.
Andorra has become a popular tourist destination visited by approximately 8 million people each year, drawn by the winter sports, summer climate, and duty-free shopping. Andorra has also become a wealthy international commercial center because of its mature banking sector and low taxes. As part of its effort to modernize its economy, Andorra has opened to foreign investment and engaged in other reforms, such as advancing tax initiatives to support a broader infrastructure. Although not a member of the EU, Andorra enjoys a special relationship with the bloc governed by various customs and cooperation agreements and uses the euro as its national currency.
Andorra’s names conventional long form: Principality of Andorra, traditional short state: Andorra, local long form: Principat d’Andorra, local short form: Andorra, etymology: the origin of the country’s name is obscure; since the area served as part of the Spanish March (defensive buffer zone) against the invading Moors in the 8th century, the name may derive from the Arabic “ad-darra” meaning “the forest.” The origin of the country’s name is obscure; The name may derive from the Arabic “ad-darra,” meaning “the forest,” a reference to its location as part of the Spanish March (defensive buffer zone) against the invading Moors in the 8th century.
Andorra’s terrain is typically rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys. The country’s mean elevation: 1,996 m, elevation extremes; lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m, highest point: Pic de Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m.
The general climate in the country; temperate: snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers.
The total number of border countries is 2, France 55 km, Spain 63 km are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. Andorra’s coastline is 0 km (landlocked country), while its marital claims are: none. Waterways: N/A. Land use: agricultural land: 43.4%; arable land 5.5%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 37.9%; forest: 34%; other: 22.6% (2011 estimate).
The population in Andorra 85,708 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 85.1% of total population (2015), central metropolitan area’s population: ANDORRA LA VELLA (capital) 23,000 (2014), while Andorra has a population is unevenly distributed and is concentrated in the seven urbanized valleys that make up the country’s parishes (political, administrative divisions). Their spoken languages are Catalan (official language), French, Castilian, Portuguese. The main religions in Andorra are Roman Catholic (predominant). The nation uses a mixed legal system of civil and customary law with the influence of canon law. It is a(n) parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains its chiefs of state in the form of a co-principality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seu d’Urgell, Spain, who are represented in Andorra by the co-princes’ representatives, National holiday(s) Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278).
Economic overview for the country: Andorra has a developed economy and a free market, with per capita income above the European average and above its neighbors, Spain and France. The country has developed a sophisticated infrastructure, including a one-of-a-kind micro-fiber-optic network for the entire country. Tourism, retail sales, and finance comprise more than three-quarters of GDP. Duty-free shopping for some products and the country’s summer and winter resorts attract millions of visitors annually.
Andorra uses the euro and is effectively subject to the monetary policy of the European Central Bank. Andorra’s comparative advantage as a tax haven eroded when the borders of neighboring France and Spain opened. The government eased bank secrecy laws under pressure from the EU and OECD. Agricultural production is limited – only about 5% of the land is arable – and most food has to be imported, making the economy vulnerable to changes in fuel and food prices. The principal livestock is sheep. Manufacturing output and exports consist mainly of perfumes and cosmetic products, the printing industry’s products, electrical machinery and equipment, clothing, tobacco products, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.
To provide incentives for growth and diversification in the economy, the Andorran government began sweeping economic reforms in 2006. The Parliament approved three laws to complement the first phase of economic openness: on companies (October 2007), on business accounting (December 2007), and on foreign investment (April 2008 and June 2012). From 2011 to 2015, the Parliament also approved direct taxes in the form of taxes on corporations, individual incomes of residents and non-residents, capital gains, savings, and economic activities. These regulations aim to establish a transparent, modern, and internationally comparable regulatory framework, to attract foreign investment and businesses that offer higher value-added.
Natural resources of Andorra: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead.
Main export partners for Andorra, Europe are N/A for tobacco products and furniture, while the main import partners for the country are: N/A for consumer goods, food, fuel, and electricity.
When you visit this country in Europe, consider the natural hazards in Andorra: Avalanches, while infectious diseases are N/A. Also, note that Andorra faces the following environmental issues: Deforestation, Overgrazing of mountain meadows, soil erosion, Air pollution, wastewater treatment, and solid waste disposal.
You may also be interested in the countries next to Andorra around its total: 118 km border, like France, Spain.