Kyrgyzstan (GPS: 41 00 N, 75 00 E) located in Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan. The country’s area measurements are total: 199,951 sq km; land: 191,801 sq km, water: 8,150 sq km. This sovereign state is slightly smaller than South Dakota. The total irrigated land is 10,233 sq km (2012).
One of the essential features of Kyrgyzstan: Landlocked (enclosed or nearly enclosed by land). Entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range. 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea-level, with an average elevation of 2,750 m: many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes.
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Bishkek’s GPS coordinates are 42 52 N 74 36 E. Bishkek’s local time is 11 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC+6.
A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of the territory of the present-day Kyrgyz Republic was formally annexed to the Russian Empire in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916, in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. The Kyrgyz Republic became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in 2005 and 2010 resulted in the ouster of the country’s first two presidents, Askar AKAEV and Kurmanbek BAKIEV. Interim President Roza OTUNBAEVA led a transitional government, and following a nation-wide election, President Almazbek ATAMBAEV was sworn in as president in 2011. In 2017, ATAMBAEV became the first Kyrgyzstani president to step down after serving one full six-year term as required in its constitution.
The former prime minister and ruling Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan member Sooronbay JEENBEKOV replaced him after winning an October 2017 presidential election that was the most competitive in its history. However, international and local election observers noted cases of vote-buying and abuse of public resources. The president holds substantial powers as head of state even though the prime minister oversees the Kyrgyzstani Government and selects most cabinet members. The president represents the country internationally and can sign or veto laws, call for new elections, nominate Supreme Court judges, cabinet members for posts related to security or defense, and numerous other high-level positions. Continuing concerns for the Kyrgyz Republic include the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, a history of tense, and at times violent, interethnic relations, border security vulnerabilities, and potential terrorist threats.
Kyrgyzstan’s names conventional long form: the Kyrgyz Republic, traditional short form: Kyrgyzstan, local extended state: Kyrgyz Respublikasy, local short form: Kyrgyzstan, former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, etymology: a combination of the Turkic words “kyrg” (forty) and “-yz” (tribes) with the Persian suffix “-stan” (country) creating the meaning “Land of the forty tribes”; the name refers to the forty clans united by the legendary Kyrgyz hero, MANAS. A combination of the Turkic words “kyrg” (forty) and “-yz” (tribes) with the Persian suffix “-stan” (country) creating the meaning “Land of the Forty Tribes”; The name refers to the 40 clans united by the legendary Kyrgyz hero, MANAS.
Kyrgyzstan’s terrain is typically peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range, and associated valleys and basins encompass the entire country. The country’s mean elevation: 2,988 m, elevation extremes; lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar’ya) 132 m, highest point: Jengish Chokusu 7,439 m.
The general climate in the country; dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains: subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley): temperate in northern foothill zone.
The total number of border countries is 4, China 1,063 km, Kazakhstan 1,212 km, Tajikistan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,314 km are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. Kyrgyzstan’s coastline is 0 km (landlocked country), while its marital claims are: none. Waterways: 600 km (2010). Land use: agricultural land: 55.4%; arable land 6.7%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 48.3%; forest: 5.1%; other: 39.5% (2011 estimate).
The population in Kyrgyzstan 5,849,296 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 35.7% of total population (2015), major urban area’s population: BISHKEK (capital) 865,000 (2015), while Kyrgyzstan has the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains. Their spoken languages are Kyrgyz (official language) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official language) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 estimate). The main religions in Kyrgyzstan are Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%. The nation uses civil law system, which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws. It is a(n) parliamentary republic, National holiday(s) Independence Day, 31 August (1991).
Economic overview for the country: Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked, mountainous, lower-middle-income country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Cotton, wool, and meat are the primary agricultural products, although only cotton is exported in any quantity. Other exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and – in some years – electricity.
The country has sought to attract foreign investment to expand its export base, including hydroelectric dams. Still, a challenging investment climate and an ongoing legal battle with a Canadian firm over the joint ownership structure of the nation’s largest gold mine deter potential investors. Remittances from Kyrgyz migrant workers, predominantly in Russia and Kazakhstan, are equivalent to more than one-quarter of Kyrgyzstan’s GDP. Following independence, Kyrgyzstan rapidly implemented market reforms, such as improving the regulatory system and instituting land reform. In 1998, Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. The government has privatized much of its shares in public enterprises. Despite these reforms, the country suffered a severe drop in production in the early 1990s and has again faced slow growth in recent years as the global financial crisis. Declining oil prices have dampened economies across Central Asia.
The Kyrgyz government remains dependent on foreign donor support to finance its annual budget deficit of approximately 3 to 5% of GDP. Kyrgyz leaders hope the country’s August 2015 accession to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) will bolster trade and investment. Still, slowing economies in Russia and China and low commodity prices continue to hamper economic growth. Large-scale trade and investment pledged by Kyrgyz leaders have been slow to develop. Many Kyrgyz entrepreneurs and politicians complain that non-tariff measures imposed by other EAEU member states hurt specific sectors of the Kyrgyz economy, such as meat and dairy production. They have a comparative advantage. Since acceding to the EAEU, the Kyrgyz Republic has continued harmonizing its laws and regulations to meet EAEU standards, though many local entrepreneurs believe this process is disjointed and incomplete. Kyrgyzstan’s economic development continues to be hampered by corruption, lack of administrative transparency, lack of diversity in domestic industries, and difficulty attracting foreign aid and investment.
Natural resources of Kyrgyzstan: abundant hydropower; gold, rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc.
Main export partners for Kyrgyzstan, Asia are Switzerland 26%, Uzbekistan 22.6%, Kazakhstan 20.8%, UAE 4.9%, Turkey 4.5%, Afghanistan 4.5%, Russia 4.2% (2015) for gold, cotton, wool, garments, meat; mercury, uranium, electricity; machinery; shoes, while the main import partners for the country are: China 56.4%, Russia 17.1%, Kazakhstan 9.9% (2015) for oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs.
When you visit this country in Asia, consider the natural hazards in Kyrgyzstan: N/A, while infectious diseases are N/A. Also, note that Kyrgyzstan faces the following environmental issues: Water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells. As a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent, Increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices, Air pollution due to the rapid increase of traffic.