Liechtenstein (GPS: 47 16 N, 9 32 E) is located in Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland. The country’s area measurements are total: 160 sq km; land: 160 sq km, water: 0 sq km. This sovereign state is about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC. The total irrigated land is 0 sq km (2012).
One of Liechtenstein’s essential features: Along with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world. Variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation.
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Vaduz’s GPS coordinates are 47 08 N 9 31 E. Vaduz’s local time is 6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC+1, note; Daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October.
The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719. Occupied by French and Russian troops during the Napoleonic Wars, it became a sovereign state in 1806 and joined the German Confederation in 1815. Liechtenstein became fully independent in 1866 when the Confederation dissolved. Until the end of World War I, it was closely tied to Austria. Still, the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to enter into a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral), its low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth. In 2000, shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight resulted in concerns about financial institutions’ use for money laundering. However, Liechtenstein implemented anti-money laundering legislation and a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty with the US that went into effect in 2003.
Liechtenstein’s names conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein, conventional short form: Liechtenstein, local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein, local short form: Liechtenstein, etymology: named after the Liechtenstein dynasty that purchased and united the counties of Schellenburg and Vaduz and that was allowed by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1719 to rename the new property after their family; the name in German means “light (bright) stone.” Named after the Liechtenstein dynasty that purchased and united Schellenburg and Vaduz’s counties, and that was allowed by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1719.
Liechtenstein’s terrain is typically mostly mountainous (Alps), with Rhine Valley in the western third. The country’s mean elevation: N/A, elevation extremes; lowest point: Ruggeller Riet 430 m, highest point: Vorder-Grauspitz 2,599 m.
The general climate in the country; continental: cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain: cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers.
The total number of border countries is 2, Austria 34 km, Switzerland 41 km are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. Liechtenstein’s coastline is 0 km (doubly landlocked), while its marital claims are: none. Waterways: 28 km (2010). Land use: agricultural land: 37.6%; arable land 18.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 18.8%; forest: 43.1%; other: 19.3% (2011 estimate).
The population in Liechtenstein 38,547 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 14.3% of total population (2015), major urban area’s population: VADUZ (capital) 5,000 (2014), while Liechtenstein has most of the population is found in the western half of the country along the Rhine River. Their spoken languages are German 94.5% (official language) (Alemannic is the main dialect), Italian 1.1%, other 4.3% (2010 estimate). Main religions in Liechtenstein are Roman Catholic (official) 75.9%, Protestant Reformed 6.5%, Muslim 5.4%, Lutheran 1.3%, other 2.9%, none 5.4%, unspecified 2.6% (2010 estimate). The nation uses a civil law system influenced by Swiss, Austrian, and German law. It is a(n) constitutional monarchy, National holiday(s) Assumption Day, 15 August, and National Day, 15 August (1940).
Economic overview for the country: Despite its small size and lack of natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial services sector and one of the highest per capita income levels in the world. The Liechtenstein economy is widely diversified with many small and medium-sized businesses, particularly in the services sector. Low business taxes – a flat tax of 12.5% on income is applied – and easy incorporation rules have induced many holding companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues.
The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between the European Free Trade Association and the EU) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated EU. As of 2015, 54% of Liechtenstein’s workforce consisted of cross-border commuters, mainly from Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Since 2008, Liechtenstein has faced renewed international pressure – particularly from Germany and the US – to improve transparency in its banking and tax systems.
In December 2008, Liechtenstein signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement with the US. Upon Liechtenstein’s conclusion of 12 bilateral information-sharing agreements, the OECD in October 2009 removed the principality from its “grey list” of countries that had yet to implement the organization’s Model Tax Convention. By the end of 2010, Liechtenstein had signed 25 Tax Information Exchange Agreements or Double Tax Agreements. In 2011, Liechtenstein joined the Schengen area, which allows passport-free travel across 26 European countries. In 2015, Liechtenstein and the EU agreed to clamp down on tax fraud and evasion and, in 2018, will start automatically exchanging information on the bank accounts of each other’s residents.
Natural resources of Liechtenstein: hydroelectric potential, arable land.
Main export partners for Liechtenstein, Europe are N/A for small specialty machinery, connectors for audio and video, motor vehicles, dental products, hardware, prepared foodstuffs, electronic equipment, and optical products. In contrast, the country’s main import partners are N/A for agricultural products, raw materials, energy products, machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, and motor vehicles.
When you visit this country in Europe, consider the natural hazards in Liechtenstein: N/A, while infectious diseases are N/A. Also, note that Liechtenstein faces environmental issues: Some air pollution generated locally, some transferred from surrounding countries.
You may also be interested in the countries next to Liechtenstein around its total: 75 km border, like Austria, Switzerland.