Austria (GPS: 47 20 N, 13 20 E) located in Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia. The country’s area measurements are total: 83,871 sq km; land: 82,445 sq km, water: 1,426 sq km. This sovereign state is about the size of South Carolina, slightly more than two-thirds the Pennsylvania size. The total irrigated land is 1,170 sq km (2012).
One of the important features of Austria: Landlocked (enclosed or nearly enclosed by land). Strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys. The principal river is the Danube. The population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere. The world’s largest and longest ice cave system at 42 km (26 mi) is the Eisriesenwelt (Ice Giants World) inside the Hochkogel mountain near Werfen, about 40 km south Salzburg. Ice caves are bedrock caves that contain year-round ice formations. They differ from glacial caves, which are transient and are formed by melting ice and flowing water within and under glaciers.
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Vienna’s GPS coordinates are 48 12 N 16 22 E. Vienna’s local time is 6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC+1, note; Daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October.
Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria’s status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria’s independence, and forbade unification with Germany. That same year, a constitutional law declared the country’s “perpetual neutrality” as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union’s collapse in 1991 and Austria’s entry into the EU in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.
Austria’s names conventional long form: the Republic of Austria, conventional short form: Austria, local long form: Republik Oesterreich, local short form: Oesterreich, etymology: the name Oesterreich means “eastern realm” or “eastern march” and dates to the 10th century; the designation refers to the fact that Austria was the easternmost extension of Bavaria, and in fact of all the Germans; the word Austria is a Latinization of the German name. The name Oesterreich means “eastern realm” or “eastern march” and dates to the 10th century; The designation refers to the fact that Austria was the easternmost extension of Bavaria, and, in fact, of all the Germans; The word Austria is a Latinization of the German name.
Austria’s terrain is typically mostly mountains (Alps) in the west and south, mostly flat or gently sloping along the eastern and northern margins. The country’s mean elevation: 910 m, elevation extremes; lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m, highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m.
The country’s general climate is temperate: continental, cloudy: cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in the mountains: moderate summers with occasional showers.
The total number of border countries is 8, the Czech Republic 402 km, Germany 801 km, Hungary 321 km, Italy 404 km, Liechtenstein 34 km, Slovakia 105 km, Slovenia 299 km, Switzerland 158 km are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. Austria’s coastline is 0 km (landlocked country), while its marital claims are: none. Waterways: 358 km (2011). Land use: agricultural land: 38.4%; arable land 16.5%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 21.1%; forest: 47.2%; other: 14.4% (2011 estimate).
The population in Austria 8,793,370 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 66% of total population (2015), central metropolitan area’s population: VIENNA (capital) 1.753 million (2015), while Austria has the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas. Their spoken languages are German (official language nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official language in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, the official language in South Carinthia, and Hungarian, the official language in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 estimate).
Main religions in Austria are Catholic 73.8% (includes Roman Catholic 73.6%, other Catholic 0.2%), Protestant 4.9%, Muslim 4.2%, Orthodox 2.2%, other 0.8% (includes other Christian), none 12%, unspecified 2% (2001 estimate). The nation uses civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court. It is a(n) federal parliamentary republic, National holiday(s) National Day, 26 October (1955).
Economic overview for the country: Austria is a well-developed market economy with a skilled labor force and a high standard of living. It is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany’s, and the US, its third-largest trade partner. Its economy features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a small but highly developed agricultural sector. Austrian economic growth strengthens in 2017, with a 2.9% increase in GDP.
Austrian exports, accounting for around 60% of the GDP, were up 8.2% in 2017. Austria’s unemployment rate fell by 0.3% to 5.5%, which is low by European standards, but still at its second highest rate since the end of World War II, driven by an increased number of refugees and EU migrants entering the labor market. Austria’s fiscal position compares favorably with other euro-zone countries. The budget deficit stood at a low 0.7% of GDP in 2017, and public debt declined again to 78.4% of GDP in 2017, after reaching a post-war high of 84.6% in 2015.
The Austrian government has announced it planned to balance the fiscal budget in 2019. Several external risks, such as Austrian banks’ exposure to Central and Eastern Europe, the refugee crisis, and continued unrest in Russia/Ukraine, eased in 2017 but are still a factor for the Austrian economy. Exposure to the Russian banking sector and a deep energy relationship with Russia present additional risks. Austria elected a new pro-business government in October 2017 that campaigned on promises to reduce bureaucracy, improve public sector efficiency, reduce labor market protections, and provide positive investment incentives.
Natural resources of Austria: oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower.
Main export partners for Austria, Europe are Germany 29.4%, US 6.4%, Italy 6.1%, Switzerland 5.7%, France 4.4%, Slovakia 4.2% (2015) for machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs, while the main import partners for the country are: Germany 41.5%, Italy 6.3%, Switzerland 6%, Czech Republic 4.2% (2015) for machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products, natural gas; foodstuffs.
When you visit this country in Europe, consider the natural hazards in Austria: Landslides, avalanches, earthquakes, while infectious diseases are N/A. Also, note that Austria faces the following environmental issues: Some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution, Soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals, Air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe, water pollution, The Danube, as well as some of Austria’s other rivers and lakes, are threatened by pollution.