Czechia (GPS: 49 45 N, 15 30 E) located in Central Europe, between Germany, Poland, Slovakia, and Austria. The country’s area measurements are total: 78,867 sq km; land: 77,247 sq km, water: 1,620 sq km. This sovereign state is slightly smaller than South Carolina. The total irrigated land is 320 sq km (2012).
One of the essential features of Czechia: Landlocked (enclosed or nearly enclosed by land). It strategically located astride some of the oldest and most significant land routes in Europe. Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe. The Hranice Abyss in Czechia is the world’s deepest surveyed underwater cave at 404 m (1,325 ft). Its survey is not complete, and it could end up being some 800-1,200 m deep.
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Prague’s GPS coordinates are 50 05 N 14 28 E. Prague’s local time is 6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC+1, note; Daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October.
At the close of World War I, the Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, having rejected a federal system, the new country’s predominantly Czech leaders frequently preoccupied with meeting the increasingly strident demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Slovaks, the Sudeten Germans, and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians).
On the eve of World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the territory that today comprises Czechia, and Slovakia became an independent state allied with Germany. After the war, a reunited but truncated Czechoslovakia (less Ruthenia) fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country’s leaders to liberalize communist rule and create “socialism with a human face,” ushering in a period of repression known as “normalization.”The peaceful “Velvet Revolution” swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy.
On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent “velvet divorce” into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. The country added the short-form name Czechia in 2016 while using the full form name, Czech Republic.
Czechia’s names conventional long form: the Czech Republic, traditional short way: Czechia, local extended state: Ceska Republika, local short form: Cesko, etymology: name derives from the Czechs, a West Slavic tribe who rose to prominence in the late 9th century A.D. The name derives from the Czechs, a West Slavic tribe that rose to prominence in the late 9th century A.D.
Czechia’s terrain is typically Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of a very hilly country. The country’s mean elevation: 433 m, elevation extremes; lowest point: Labe (Elbe) River 115 m, highest point: Snezka 1,602 m.
The general climate in the country; temperate: cool summers: cold, cloudy, humid winters.
The total number of border countries is 4, Austria 402 km, Germany 704 km, Poland 796 km, Slovakia 241 km are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. Czechia’s coastline is 0 km (landlocked country), while its marital claims are: none. Waterways: 664 km (principally on Elbe, Vltava, Oder, and other navigable rivers, lakes, and canals) (2010). Land use: agricultural land: 54.8%; arable land 41%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 12.8%; forest: 34.4%; other: 10.8% (2011 estimate).
The population in Czechia 10,686,269 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 73% of total population (2015), major urban area’s population: PRAGUE (capital) 1.314 million (2015), while Czechia has a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, but the northern and eastern regions tend to have larger urban concentrations. Their spoken languages are: Czech (official language) 95.4%, Slovak 1.6%, other 3% (2011 census).
Main religions in Czechia are Roman Catholic 10.4%, Protestant (includes Czech Brethren and Hussite) 1.1%, other and unspecified 54%, none 34.5% (2011 estimate). The nation uses new civil code enacted in 2014, replacing the civil code of 1964 – based on former Austro-Hungarian civil codes and socialist theory – and reintroducing former Czech legal terminology. It is a(n) parliamentary republic, National holiday(s) Czechoslovak Founding Day, 28 October (1918).
Economic overview for the country: Czechia is a prosperous market economy that boasts one of the highest GDP growth rates and lowest unemployment levels in the EU, but its dependence on exports makes economic growth vulnerable to contractions in external demand. Czechia’s exports comprise some 80% of GDP and mainly consist of automobiles, the single largest industry. Czechia acceded to the EU in 2004 but has yet to join the euro-zone.
While the flexible koruna helps Czechia weather external shocks, it was one of the world’s strongest performing currencies in 2017, appreciating approximately 16% relative to the US dollar after the central bank (Czech National Bank – CNB) ended its cap on the currency’s value in early April 2017, which it had maintained since November 2013. The CNB hiked rates in August and November 2017 – the first-rate changes in nine years – to address rising inflationary pressures from strong economic growth and a tight labor market. Since coming to power in 2014, the new government has undertaken some reforms to reduce corruption, attract investment, and improve social welfare programs, which could help increase the government’s revenues and improve living conditions for Czechs.
The government introduced in December 2016 an online tax reporting system intended to reduce tax evasion and increase revenues. The government also plans to remove labor market rigidities to improve the business climate, bring procurement procedures in line with EU best practices, and boost wages. The country’s low unemployment rate has led to steady increases in salaries. The government faces pressure from businesses to allow more significant migration of qualified workers from Ukraine and neighboring Central European countries. Long-term challenges include dealing with a rapidly aging population, a shortage of skilled workers, a lagging education system, funding an unsustainable pension and health care system, and diversifying away from manufacturing and toward a more high-tech, services-based, knowledge economy.
Natural resources of Czechia: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber, arable land.
Main export partners for Czechia, Europe are Germany 32.4%, Slovakia 9%, Poland 5.8%, UK 5.3%, France 5.1%, Austria 4.1% (2015) for machinery and transport equipment, raw materials, fuel, chemicals, while the main import partners for the country are: Germany 30%, Poland 9%, China 8.3%, Slovakia 6.6%, Netherlands 5%, Austria 4.1% (2015) for machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuels, chemicals.
When you visit this country in Europe, consider the natural hazards in Czechia: Flooding, while infectious diseases are N/A. Also, note that Czechia faces the following environmental issues: Air and water pollution in northwest Bohemia and northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks, Acid rain damaging forests, Land pollution caused by industry, mining, and agriculture.