Poland (GPS: 52 00 N, 20 00 E) located in Central Europe, east of Germany. The country’s area measurements are total: 312,685 sq km; land: 304,255 sq km, water: 8,430 sq km. This sovereign state is about twice the size of Georgia, slightly smaller than New Mexico. The total irrigated land is 970 sq km (2012).
One of Poland’s critical features: Historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain.
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Warsaw’s GPS coordinates are 52 15 N 21 00 E. Warsaw’s local time is 6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC+1, note; Daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October.
Poland’s history as a state began near the middle of the 10th century. By the mid-16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled a vast tract of land in Central and Eastern Europe. During the 18th century, internal disorders weakened the nation, and in a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war.
Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union “Solidarity” that became a political force with over 10 million members over time. Free elections in 1989 and 1990 won Solidarity control of the parliament and the presidency, bringing the communist era to a close. A “shock therapy” program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations. Its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country is mostly completed and with large investments in defense, energy, and other infrastructure.
Poland’s names conventional long form: the Republic of Poland, traditional short form: Poland, local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska, local short state: Polska, etymology: name derives from the Polanians, a West Slavic tribe that united several surrounding Slavic groups (9th-10th centuries A.D.) and who passed on their name to the country; the name of the tribe likely comes from the Slavic “pole” (field or plain), indicating the flat nature of their country. The name derives from the Polanians, a West Slavic tribe that united several surrounding Slavic groups (9th-10th centuries A.D.) and who passed on their Name to the country; The Name of the tribe likely comes from the Slavic “pole” (field or plain), indicating the flat nature of their country.
Poland’s terrain is typically mostly flat plain; mountains along the southern border. The country’s mean elevation: 173 m, elevation extremes; lowest point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m, highest point: Rysy 2,499 m.
The general climate in the country; temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation: mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers.
The total number of border countries is 7, Belarus 418 km, Czech Republic 796 km, Germany 467 km, Lithuania 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Slovakia 541 km, Ukraine 535 km are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. Poland’s coastline is 440 km, while its marital claims are: territorial sea: 12 nautical miles, exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties. Waterways: 3,997 km (navigable rivers and canals) (2009). Land use: agricultural land: 48.2%; arable land 36.2%; permanent crops 1.3%; permanent pasture 10.7%; forest: 30.6%; other: 21.2% (2011 estimate).
The population in Poland 38,420,687 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 60.5% of total population (2015), major urban area’s population: WARSAW (capital) 1.722 million; Krakow 760,000 (2015), while Poland has a population concentrated in the southern (Krakow) and central (Warsaw, Lodz) areas, with an extension to the northern coastal city of Gdansk. Their spoken languages are: Polish (official language) 98.2%, Silesian 1.4%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.3%.
Note: data represents the language spoken at home; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Poland ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2009 recognizing Kashub as a regional language, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian as national minority languages, and Karaim, Lemko, Romani (Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma), and Tatar as ethnic minority languages (2011 estimate). Main religions in Poland are Catholic 87.2% (includes Roman Catholic 86.9% and Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic, and Byzantine-Slavic Catholic .3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentecostal), other 0.4% (includes Jehovah’s Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Mormon), unspecified 10.8% (2012 estimate). The nation uses civil law system; judicial review of legislative, administrative, and other governmental acts; constitutional law rulings of the Constitutional Tribunal are final. It is a(n) parliamentary republic, National holiday(s) Constitution Day, 3 May (1791).
Economic overview for the country: Poland has the sixth-largest economy in the EU and has long had a reputation as a business-friendly country with mostly sound macroeconomic policies. Since 1990, Poland has pursued a policy of economic liberalization. During the 2008-2009 economic slowdown, Poland was the only EU country to avoid a recession, in part because of the government’s loose fiscal policy combined with a commitment to rein in spending in medium-term Poland is the largest recipient of EU development funds and their cyclical allocation can significantly impact the rate of economic growth. The Polish economy performed well during the 2014-2017 period, with the real GDP growth rate generally exceeding 3%, in part because of increases in government social spending that have helped to accelerate consumer-driven growth. However, since 2015, Poland has implemented new business restrictions and taxes on foreign-dominated economic sectors, including banking and insurance, energy, and healthcare, that have dampened investor sentiment and has increased the government’s ownership of some firms.
The government reduced the retirement age in 2016 and has had mixed success in introducing new taxes and boosting tax compliance to offset social spending programs’ increased costs and relieve upward pressure on the budget deficit. Some credit rating agencies estimate that Poland during the next few years is at risk of exceeding the EU’s 3%-of-GDP limit on budget deficits, possibly impacting its access to future EU funds. Poland’s economy projected to perform well in the next few years in part because of an anticipated cyclical increase in the use of its EU development funds and continued robust household spending.
Poland faces several systemic challenges, including addressing some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labor code, the commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system, especially for entrepreneurs. Additional long-term challenges include diversifying Poland’s energy mix, strengthening investments in innovation, research, and development, as well as stemming the outflow of educated young Poles to other EU member states, especially in light of a coming demographic contraction due to emigration, persistently low fertility rates, and the aging of the Solidarity-era baby boom generation.
Main export partners for Poland, Europe are Germany 27.1%, UK 6.8%, Czech Republic 6.6%, France 5.5%, Italy 4.8%, Netherlands 4.4% (2015) for machinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6% (2012 estimate), while the main import partners for the country are: Germany 27.6%, China 7.5%, Russia 7.2%, Netherlands 5.9%, Italy 5.2%, France 4.1% (2015) for machinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 15%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9% (2011 estimate).
When you visit this country in Europe, consider the natural hazards in Poland: Flooding, while infectious diseases are the degree of risk: intermediate vector-borne disease: tickborne encephalitis (2016). Also, note that Poland faces the following environmental issues: Decreased emphasis on heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-communist governments have improved the environment, Air pollution remains serious because of emissions from burning low-quality coals in homes and from coal-fired power plants, The resulting acid rain causes forest damage, water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is a problem, as is the disposal of hazardous wastes.