Greenland (GPS: 72 00 N, 40 00 W) is located in Northern North America, an island between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada. The country’s area measurements are total: 2,166,086 sq km; land: 2,166,086 sq km. This sovereign state is slightly more than three times the size of Texas. The total irrigated land is N/A.
One of the important features of Greenland: Dominates the North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe. Sparse population confined to small settlements along the coast. Close to one-quarter of the population lives in the capital, Nuuk. World’s second-largest ice sheet after that of Antarctica, covering an area of 1.71 million sq km (660,000 sq mi) or about 79% of the island, and containing 2.85 million cu km (684 thousand cu mi) of ice (this is almost 7% of all of the world’s freshwater). If all this ice were converted to liquid water, one estimate would be sufficient to raise the world’s oceans’ height by 7.2 m (24 ft).
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Nuuk’s GPS coordinates are 64 11 N 51 45 W. Nuuk’s local time is 2 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC-3, note; Daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October. Note: Greenland has four time zones.
Greenland, the world’s largest island, is about 80% ice-capped. Vikings reached the island in the 10th century from Iceland; Danish colonization began in the 18th century, and Greenland became an integral part of the Danish Realm in 1953. It joined the European Community (now the EU) with Denmark in 1973 but withdrew in 1985 over a dispute centered on stringent fishing quotas. Greenland remains a member of the Overseas Countries and Territories Association of the EU. Greenland was granted self-government in 1979 by the Danish parliament; The law went into effect the following year. Greenland voted in favor of increased self-rule in November 2008 and acquired greater responsibility for internal affairs when the Act on Greenland Self-Government was signed into law in June 2009. However, Denmark continues to exercise control over several policy areas on behalf of Greenland, including foreign affairs, security, and financial policy in consultation with Greenland’s Self-Rule Government.
Greenland’s names conventional long form: none, traditional short form: Greenland, local extended state: none, local short form: Kalaallit Nunaat. Note: named by Norwegian adventurer Erik THORVALDSSON (Erik the Red) in 985 to entice settlers to the island. N/A.
Greenland’s terrain is typically flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous, barren, rocky coast. The country’s mean elevation: 1,792 m, elevation extremes; lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m, highest point: Gunnbjorn Fjeld 3,700 m.
The general climate in the country; arctic to subarctic: cool summers, cold winters.
The total number of border countries is 0; none are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. Greenland’s coastline is 44,087 km, while its marital claims are: territorial sea: 3 nautical miles, exclusive fishing zone: 200 nautical miles, or agreed boundaries or median line. Continental shelf: 200 nautical miles or agreed boundaries or median line. Waterways: N/A. Land use: agricultural land: 0.6%; arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.6%; forest: 0%; other: 99.4% (2011 estimate).
The population in Greenland 57,691 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 86.4% of total population (2015), central metropolitan area’s population: NUUK (capital) 17,000 (2014), while Greenland has settlement concentrated on the southwest shoreline, with limited settlements scattered along the remaining coast; interior is uninhabited. Their spoken languages are Greenlandic (East Inuit) (official language), Danish (official language), English. The main religions in Greenland are Evangelical Lutheran, traditional Inuit spiritual beliefs. The nation uses the laws of Denmark to apply where applicable and Greenlandic law applies to other areas. It is a(n) parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Greenland); part of the Kingdom of Denmark, National holiday(s) June 21 (longest day).
Economic overview for the country: Greenland’s economy depends on exports of shrimp and fish and a substantial subsidy from the Danish Government. Fish account for over 90% of its exports, subjecting the economy to price fluctuations. The Danish Government’s support is budgeted to be about $535 million in 2017, more than 50% of government revenues and 25% of GDP. The economy is expanding after a period of decline. The economy contracted between 2012 and 2014, grew by 1.7% in 2015 and by 7.7%in 2016. The expansion has been driven by larger quotas for shrimp, the predominant Greenlandic export, and increased activity in the construction sector, especially in Nuuk, the capital. Private consumption and tourism also are contributing to GDP growth more than in previous years. Tourism in Greenland grew annually around 20% in 2015 and 2016, largely a result of increasing numbers of cruise lines now operating in Greenland’s western and southern waters during the peak summer tourism season. The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays a dominant role in Greenland’s economy.
During the last decade, the Greenland Self Rule Government pursued conservative fiscal and monetary policies, but public pressure has increased for better schools, health care, and retirement systems. The budget was in deficit in 2014 and 2016, but public debt remains low at about 5% of GDP. The government plans a balanced budget for the 2017-2020 period. Significant challenges face the island, including low levels of qualified labor, geographic dispersion, lack of industry diversification, the long-term sustainability of the public budget, and a declining population due to emigration. Hydrocarbon exploration has ceased with declining oil prices. The island can exploit natural resource exploitation with rare-earth, uranium, and iron ore mineral projects proposed, but a lack of infrastructure hinders development.
Greenland natural resources: coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, molybdenum, diamonds, gold, platinum, niobium, tantalite, uranium, fish, seals, whales, hydropower, possible oil, and gas.
Main export partners for Greenland, Arctic Region are Denmark 51.6%, China 11.1%, Japan 9.1%, Russia 7.2% (2015) for fish and fish products 91% (2015 estimate), while the main import partners for the country are: Denmark 67.1%, Sweden 14.1%, Iceland 5.1% (2015) for machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, petroleum products.
When you visit this country in the Arctic Region, consider the natural hazards in Greenland: Continuous permafrost over the northern two-thirds of the island, while infectious diseases are N/A. Also, note that Greenland faces the following environmental issues: Especially vulnerable to climate change and disruption of the Arctic environment, Preservation of the Inuit traditional way of life, including whaling and seal hunting.
You may also be interested in the countries next to Greenland around its 0 km border – No border countries.