Estonia (GPS: 59 00 N, 26 00 E) is located in Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia. The country’s area measurements are total: 45,228 sq km; land: 42,388 sq km, water: 2,840 sq km. This sovereign state is about twice the size of New Jersey. The total irrigated land is 40 sq km (2012).
Estonia’s essential features: The mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded. Offshore lie more than 1,500 islands.
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Tallinn’s GPS coordinates are 59 26 N 24 43 E. Tallinn’s local time is 7 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC+2, note; Daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October.
After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 – an action never recognized by the US and many other countries – it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with the Westimate. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004, formally joined the OECD in late 2010 and adopted the euro as its official currency on 1 January 2011.
Estonia’s names conventional long form: the Republic of Estonia, conventional short form: Estonia, local long form: Eesti Vabariik, local short form: Eesti, former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, etymology: the country name may be derived from the Aesti, an ancient people who lived along the eastern Baltic Sea in the first centuries A.D.
Estonia’s terrain is typically marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south. The country’s mean elevation: 61 m, elevation extremes; lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m, highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m.
The general climate in the country; maritime: wet, moderate winters, cool summers.
The total number of border countries is 2, Latvia 333 km, Russia 324 km are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. Estonia’s coastline is 3,794 km, while its marital claims are: territorial sea: 12 nautical miles, exclusive economic zone: limits as agreed to by Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Sweden, and Russia. Waterways: 335 km (320 km are navigable year-round) (2011). Land use: agricultural land: 22.2%; arable land 14.9%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 7.2%; forest: 52.1%; other: 25.7% (2011 estimate).
The population in Estonia 1,244,288 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 67.5% of total population (2015), major urban area’s population: TALLINN (capital) 391,000 (2015), while Estonia has a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations. Their spoken languages are: Estonian (official language) 68.5%, Russian 29.6%, Ukrainian 0.6%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.1% (2011 estimate). Main religions in Estonia are Lutheran 9.9%, Orthodox 16.2%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 2.2%, other 0.9%, none 54.1%, unspecified 16.7% (2011 estimate). The nation uses civil law system. It is a(n) parliamentary republic, National holiday(s) Independence Day, 24 February (1918).
Economic overview for the country: Estonia, a member of the EU since 2004 and the eurozone since 2011, has a modern market-based economy and one of the higher per capita income levels in Central Europe and the Baltic region, but its economy is highly dependent on trade, leaving it vulnerable to external shocks. Estonia’s successive governments have pursued a free market, pro-business economic agenda, and sound fiscal policies that have resulted in balanced budgets and the lowest debt-to-GDP ratio in the EU. The economy benefits from robust electronics and telecommunications sectors and strong trade ties with Finland, Sweden, Germany, and Russia.
The economy’s 4.9% GDP growth in 2017 was the fastest in the past six years, leaving the Estonian economy in its best position since the financial crisis ten years ago. For the first time in many years, labor productivity increased faster than labor costs in 2017. Inflation also rose in 2017 to 3.5% alongside increased global prices for food and energy, which make up a large share of Estonia’s consumption. Estonia is challenged by a shortage of labor, both skilled and unskilled. However, the government has amended its immigration law to hire highly qualified foreign workers and wage growth that outpaces productivity gains. The government is also pursuing efforts to boost productivity growth, focusing on innovations that emphasize technology start-ups and e-commerce.
Main export partners for Estonia, Europe are Sweden 18.8%, Finland 16%, Latvia 10.4%, Russia 6.7%, Lithuania 5.9%, Germany 5.2%, Norway 4.1% (2015) for machinery and electrical equipment 34%, food products and beverages 9%, mineral fuels 9%, wood and wood products 10%, metals 7%, furniture 9%, vehicles and parts 6%, chemicals 5% (2015 estimate), while the main import partners for the country are: Finland 14.5%, Germany 11%, Lithuania 9%, Sweden 8.5%, Latvia 8.3%, Poland 7.4%, Russia 6.1%, Netherlands 5.5%, China 4.8% (2015) for machinery and electrical equipment 28 %, mineral fuels 11%, food and food products 10%, vehicles 9%, chemical products 8%, metals 8% (2015 estimate).
When you visit this country in Europe, consider Estonia’s natural hazards: Sometimes flooding occurs in the spring, while infectious diseases are a degree of risk: intermediate vector-borne disease: tickborne encephalitis (2016). Also, note that Estonia faces the following environmental issues: Air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in the northeast. However, the amounts of pollutants emitted into the air have fallen dramatically, and the pollution load of wastewater at purification plants has decreased substantially due to improved technology and environmental monitoring; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and human-made lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored, Coastal seawater is polluted in specific locations.
You may also be interested in the countries next to Estonia around its total: 657 km border, like Latvia, Russia.