Norway (GPS: 62 00 N, 10 00 E) located in Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden. The country’s area measurements are total: 323,802 sq km; land: 304,282 sq km, water: 19,520 sq km. This sovereign state is slightly larger than twice the size of Georgia, slightly larger than New Mexico. The total irrigated land is 900 sq km (2012).
One of the essential features of Norway: About two-thirds of mountains. Some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline. Strategic location is adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic. One of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world.
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Oslo’s GPS coordinates are 59 55 N 10 45 E. Oslo’s local time is 6 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC+1, note; Daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October.
Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994; Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution to accept the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence.
Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II but was occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, Norway abandoned neutrality and became a member of NATO. The Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway’s economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country’s extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.
Norway’s names conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway, traditional short form: Norway, local long form: Kongeriket Norge, local short state: Norge, etymology: derives from the Old Norse words “nordr” and “vegr” meaning “northern way” and refers to the long coastline of western Norway. Derives from the Old Norse words “nordr” and “vegr” pointing “northern way,” and refers to the long coastline of western Norway.
Norway’s terrain is typically glaciated; fertile valleys break mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in the north. The country’s mean elevation: 460 m, elevation extremes; lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m, highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m.
The country’s general climate; temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current: colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers: rainy year-round on the west coast.
The total number of border countries is 3, Finland 709 km, Sweden 1,666 km, Russia 191 km are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. Norway’s coastline is 25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km), while its marital claims are: territorial sea: 12 nautical miles, contiguous zone: 10 nautical miles, exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles, continental shelf: 200 nautical miles. Waterways: 1,577 km (2010). Land use: agricultural land: 2.7%; arable land 2.2%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.5%; forest: 27.8%; other: 69.5% (2011 estimate).
The population in Norway 5,372,191 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 80.5% of total population (2015), central metropolitan area’s population: OSLO (capital) 986,000 (2015), while Norway has most Norwegians live in the south where the climate is milder, and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated. Their spoken languages are Bokmal Norwegian (official language), Nynorsk Norwegian (official language), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities. Note: Sami is an official language in nine municipalities.
Main religions in Norway are Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran – official) 82.1%, other Christian 3.9%, Muslim 2.3%, Roman Catholic 1.8%, other 2.4%, unspecified 7.5% (2011 estimate). The nation uses mixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law; the Supreme Court can advise on legislative acts. It is a(n) parliamentary constitutional monarchy, National holiday(s) Constitution Day, 17 May (1814).
Economic overview for the country: Norway has a stable economy with a vibrant private sector, a large state sector, and an extensive social safety net. Norway opted out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994. However, as a member of the European Economic Area, Norway partially participates in the EU’s single market and contributes sizably to the EU budget. The country is richly endowed with natural resources such as oil and gas, fish, forests, and minerals. Norway is a leading producer and the world’s second-largest exporter of seafood, after China. The government manages the country’s petroleum resources through extensive regulation. The petroleum sector provides about 9% of jobs, 12% of GDP, 13% of the state’s revenue, and 37% of exports, according to official national estimates.
Norway is one of the world’s leading petroleum exporters, although oil production is close to 50% below its peak in 2000. Gas production, conversely, has more than doubled since 2000. Although oil production is historically low, it rose in 2016 for the third consecutive year due to the higher production of existing oil fields and new fields. Norway’s domestic electricity production relies almost entirely on hydropower. In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves state revenue from petroleum sector activities in the world’s largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at over $1 trillion at the end of 2017. To help balance the federal budget each year, the government follows a “fiscal rule,” which states that spending of revenues from petroleum and fund investments shall correspond to the fund’s expected real rate of return. An amount it estimates is sustainable over time.
In February 2017, the government revised the expected return rate for the fund downward from 4% to 3%. After substantial GDP growth in the 2004-2007 period, the economy slowed in 2008 and contracted in 2009, before returning to modest, positive growth from 2010 to 2017. The Norwegian economy has been adjusting to lower energy prices, as demonstrated by an increased labor force participation and employment in 2017. GDP growth was about 1.5% in 2017, primarily driven by domestic demand, which has been boosted by the rebound in the labor market and supportive fiscal policies. Economic growth is expected to remain constant or improve slightly in the next few years.
Natural resources of Norway: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower.
Main export partners for Norway, Europe are UK 22.2%, Germany 17.9%, Netherlands 10.2%, France 6.6%, Sweden 6.1%, Belgium 5%, US 4.5% (2015) for petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish, while the main import partners for the country are: Sweden 12%, Germany 11.8%, China 10.9%, UK 6.7%, US 6.6%, Denmark 6% (2015) for machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs.
When you visit this country in Europe, consider the natural hazards in Norway: Rockslides, avalanchesvolcanism: Beerenberg (elevation 2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country’s only active volcano, while infectious diseases are N/A. Also, note that Norway faces the following environmental issues: Water pollution, Acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks, Air pollution from vehicle emissions.
You may also be interested in the countries next to Norway around its total: 2,566 km border, like Finland, Sweden, Russia.