Finland (GPS: 64 00 N, 26 00 E) is located in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and the Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia. The country’s area measurements are total: 338,145 sq km; land: 303,815 sq km, water: 34,330 sq km. This sovereign state is slightly more than two times the size of Georgia, slightly smaller than Montana. The total irrigated land is 690 sq km (2012).
One of the critical features of Finland: Long boundary with Russia. Helsinki is the northernmost national capital on the European continent. The population concentrated on the small southwestern coastal plain.
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Helsinki’s GPS coordinates are 60 10 N 24 56 E. Helsinki’s local time is 7 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC+2, note; Daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October.
Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union, albeit with some territory loss. In the subsequent half-century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; Per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe.
A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, Finland’s modern welfare state’s key features are high-quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system – currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.
Finland’s names conventional long form: the Republic of Finland, traditional short form: Finland, local long way: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland, local short form: Suomi/Finland, etymology: the name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as living in northeastern Europe in the first centuries A.D. Name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as residing in northeast Europe in the early centuries A.D.
Finland’s terrain is typically mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and downhills. The country’s mean elevation: 164 m, elevation extremes; lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m, highest point: Halti 1,328 m.
The country’s general climate is cold temperate: potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of the moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes.
The total number of border countries is 3, Norway 709 km, Sweden 545 km, Russia 1,309 km are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. Finland’s coastline is 1,250 km, while its marital claims are: territorial sea: 12 nautical miles(in the Gulf of Finland – 3 nautical miles)contiguous zone: 24 nautical miles, exclusive fishing zone: 12 nautical miles; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russiacontinental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation. Waterways: 8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport frequently used in the summer and widely replaced with sleds on the ice in winter; 187,888 lakes in Finland cover 31,500 km); Finland also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013). Land use: agricultural land: 7.5%; arable land 7.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.1%; forest: 72.9%; other: 19.6% (2011 estimate).
The population in Finland 5,537,364 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 84.2% of total population (2015), major urban area’s population: HELSINKI (capital) 1.18 million (2015), while Finland has the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely populated. Their spoken languages are: Finnish (official language) 89%, Swedish (official language) 5.3%, Russian 1.3%, other 4.4% (2014 estimate). The main religions in Finland are Lutheran 73.8%, Orthodox 1.1%, other or none 25.1% (2014 estimate). The nation uses civil law system based on the Swedish model. It is a(n) parliamentary republic, National holiday(s) Independence Day, 6 December (1917).
Economic overview for the country: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita GDP almost as high as that of Austria and the Netherlands and slightly above that of Germany and Belgium. Trade is essential, with exports accounting for over one-third of GDP in recent years. The government is open to, and actively takes steps to attract, foreign direct investment. Finland is historically competitive in manufacturing, particularly in the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in export of technology as well as promotion of startups in the information and communications technology, gaming, cleantech, and biotechnology sectors. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods.
Because of the cold climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in necessary products. Forestry, an important export industry, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU before 2009 and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in that year, causing Finland’s economy to contract from 2012 to 2014. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio.
The economy returned to growth in 2016, posting a 1.9% GDP increase before growing an estimated 3.3% in 2017, supported by a substantial increase in investment, private consumption, and net exports. Finnish economists expect GDP to develop a rate of 2-3% in the next few years. Finland’s main challenges will be reducing high labor costs and boosting demand for its exports. In June 2016, the government enacted a Competitiveness Pact aimed at reducing labor costs, increasing hours worked, and introducing more flexibility into the wage bargaining system. As a result, wage growth was nearly flat in 2017. The Government was also seeking to reform the health care system and social services. In the long term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity in traditional industries that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth.
Natural resources of Finland: timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone.
Main export partners for Finland, Europe are Germany 13.9%, Sweden 10.1%, US 7%, Netherlands 6.6%, Russia 5.9%, UK 5.2%, China 4.7% (2015) for electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber, while the main import partners for the country are: Germany 17%, Sweden 16%, Russia 11%, Netherlands 9.1%, Denmark 4.1% (2015) for foodstuffs, petroleum, and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains.
When you visit this country in Europe, consider the natural hazards in Finland: N/A, while infectious diseases are N/A. Also, note that Finland faces the following environmental issues: Limited air pollution in urban centers. Some water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals, Habitat loss threatens wildlife populations.
You may also be interested in the countries next to Finland around its total: 2,563 km border, like Norway, Sweden, Russia.