Romania (GPS: 46 00 N, 25 00 E) located in Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine. The country’s area measurements are total: 238,391 sq km; land: 229,891 sq km, water: 8,500 sq km. This sovereign state is slightly smaller than Oregon. The total irrigated land is 31,490 sq km (2012).
One of Romania’s essential features: Controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine. The Carpathian Mountains dominate the country’s center, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria.
It’s significant, and at the same time, the principal city, Bucharest’s GPS coordinates are 44 26 N 26 06 E. Bucharest’s local time is 7 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time. The capital’s time difference: UTC+2, note; Daylight saving time: +1hr begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October.
For centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire, the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia secured their autonomy in 1856; They were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories – most notably Transylvania – following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the USSR’s 1941 German invasion. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice.
The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist “people’s republic” in 1947 and the king’s abdication. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
Romania’s names conventional long form: none, traditional short form: Romania, local long way: none, local short form: Romania, etymology: the name derives from the Latin “Romanus” meaning “citizen of Rome” and used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania’s three central regions – Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia – during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century. The name derives from the Latin “Romanus,” meaning “citizen of Rome” and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania’s three central regions – Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia – during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century.
Romania’s terrain is typically central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps. The country’s mean elevation: 414 m, elevation extremes; lowest point: the Black Sea 0 m, highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m.
The country’s general climate is temperate: cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog: sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms.
The total number of border countries is 5, Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km are the neighboring nations with the indicated border lengths. Romania’s coastline is 225 km. Its marital claims are territorial sea: 12 nautical miles, contiguous zone: 24 nautical miles, exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles, continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation. Waterways: 1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010). Land use: agricultural land: 60.7%; arable land 39.1%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 19.7%; forest: 28.7%; other: 10.6% (2011 estimate).
The population in Romania 21,457,116 (July 2018 estimate), urban population: 54.6% of total population (2015), central metropolitan area’s population: BUCHAREST (capital) 1.868 million (2015), while Romania has urbanization is not exceptionally high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country’s largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania.
Their spoken languages are: Romanian (official language) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 estimate). Main religions in Romania are Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 estimate). The nation uses civil law system. It is a(n) semi-presidential republic, National holiday(s) Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918).
Economic overview for the country: Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country’s needs. Romania’s macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur the creation of a middle class and address Romania’s widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011.
In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; No funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks. Economic growth rebounded in the 2013-2017 period, driven by strong industrial exports, excellent agricultural harvests, and, more recently, expansionary fiscal policies in 2016-2017 that nearly quadrupled Bucharest’s annual fiscal deficit, from +0.8% of GDP in 2015 to -3% of GDP in 2016 and an estimated -3.4% in 2017.
Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2017. Exports remained an economic growth engine, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania’s business. Domestic demand was the primary driver due to tax cuts and large wage increases that began last year and are set to continue in 2018. An aging population, the emigration of skilled labor, significant tax evasion, insufficient health care, and an aggressive loosening of the fiscal package compromise Romania’s long-term growth and economic stability and are the economy’s top vulnerabilities.
Natural resources of Romania: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower.
Main export partners for Romania, Europe are Germany 19.8%, Italy 12.5%, France 6.8%, Hungary 5.4%, UK 4.4% (2015) for machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials, while the main import partners for the country are: Germany 19.8%, Italy 10.9%, Hungary 8%, France 5.6%, Poland 4.9%, China 4.6%, Netherlands 4% (2015) for machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials.
When you visit this country in Europe, consider that Romania’s natural hazards: Earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest, geologic structure and climate promote landslides, while infectious diseases are N/A. Also, note that Romania faces the following environmental issues: Soil erosion, degradation, and desertification, water pollution, Air pollution in the south from industrial effluents, Contamination of Danube delta wetlands.
You may also be interested in the countries next to Romania around its total: 2,844 km border, like Bulgaria, Hungary, Moldova, Serbia, Ukraine.